Gastrointestinal Immunology

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract is the only organ whose function is controlled by its own intrinsic enteric nervous system (ENS), but it is additionally regulated by extrinsic (sympathetic and parasympathetic) innervation. The GI nervous and immune systems are highly incorporated in their common goal, which is to unite digestive functions with protection from ingested environmental threats. This review discusses the physiological importance of enteric neuroimmune integration by summarizing the current knowledge of developmental pathways, cellular organization, and molecular mechanisms of neuroimmune interactions in health and ailments. Gut Immunology test verifies the immune response in the gut by measuring two biomarkers, calprotectin and eosinophil protein X (EPX). The normal and inflammated intestine contains many specific immune cells, including IgA-secreting plasma cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, regulatory T cells and gdT cells.

 

  • Gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT)
  • Immune protection in the gut
  • phagocytic cells in the liver

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